1) Startup nomount - only Instance started (SPFile or PFile)

2) Startup mount - InStance  + Control File

3) Startup open or Startup  - Instance + Control File  +All Files (Data Files +Redo log )

4) Startup Force -Restart Database

5) Startup Restrict - Only  DBA can access  the database

6) Startup Upgrade - Upgrading a database from current version into new version release

By using  PFile Start Database :

Let Us see how the pfile has been used for startup the database  

7) Startup Pfile= 'Location' nomount

8) Startup Pfile= 'Location' Mount

9) Startup Pfile= 'Location' Open

10) Startup Pfile= 'Location' Force

11) Startup Pfile= 'Location' Restrict

By Using Alter Commands in Startup :

   The alter commands are  used to Change the database  from  one stage into another stage, Let us see the commands

12) Alter  Database mount:

      - This command is used to  change the database  from nomount stage into mount stage

13) Alter Database dismount:

      - This command is quiet opposition  of above command  which  change the database from mount into nomount stage

14) Alter Database open:

      - This command is used to  open the database from mount  stage.

15) Alter Database close:

16) Alter Database open read only:

      - The database will opened and it's read only  mode which means you can do  read data  on database but  you can't perform insert or deletion,drop or modification  on database

17) Alter Database open read write:

      - The database will be on normal mode which means you can perform insert,update,delete.

18) Alter system enable restricted session:

      - The database can access only DBA or DBA assigned roles users

19) Alter system disable restricted session:

      - The database will be disconnected from restricted mode