let us we discuss about logical backup method datapump .

what is datapump?

-Datapump is a server based bulk data movement infrastructure .

-It is a newer,faster ,more flexible and advance utility of export and import utilities

-export and import utilities are still available  but not support all features of oracle 10g and 11g

Create database directories

S-1 create directory in db level here ram is logical and datapump is folder of physical apperance

SQL> create directory ram as '/u02/backup/datapump';

Directory created.

S_2

[oracle@goldengatesource ~]$ mkdir -p /u02/backup/datapump

S_3

To grant directory ram which user have going to perform datapump

SQL> grant read,write on directory ram to scott;

Grant succeeded.

S_4 

grant export full and import full to scott user  if we doesn't grant those rights  sometimes  it ll show system:sys_import_full_01 or sytem:sys_export_full_01 errors  while doing expdp or impdp jobs  

SQL> grant exp_full_database to scott;

Grant succeeded.

SQL> grant imp_full_database to scott;

Grant succeeded.

View directory  Oracle introduced a default directory from 1og onwards called DATA_PUMP_DIR

SQL> select * from dba_directories where directory_name='RAM';

OWNER                          DIRECTORY_NAME   DIRECTORY_PATH
---------------             ------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SYS                            RAM              /u02/backup/datapump

To view available parameters in expdp

[oracle@goldengatesource ~]$ expdp help=y

Export: Release 11.2.0.1.0 - Production on Sat Mar 19 11:51:20 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.


The Data Pump export utility provides a mechanism for transferring data objects
between Oracle databases. The utility is invoked with the following command:

   Example: expdp scott/tiger DIRECTORY=dmpdir DUMPFILE=scott.dmp

You can control how Export runs by entering the 'expdp' command followed
by various parameters. To specify parameters, you use keywords:

   Format:  expdp KEYWORD=value or KEYWORD=(value1,value2,...,valueN)
   Example: expdp scott/tiger DUMPFILE=scott.dmp DIRECTORY=dmpdir SCHEMAS=scott
               or TABLES=(T1:P1,T1:P2), if T1 is partitioned table

USERID must be the first parameter on the command line.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The available keywords and their descriptions follow. Default values are listed within square brackets.

ATTACH
Attach to an existing job.
For example, ATTACH=job_name.

COMPRESSION
Reduce the size of a dump file.
Valid keyword values are: ALL, DATA_ONLY, [METADATA_ONLY] and NONE.

CONTENT
Specifies data to unload.
Valid keyword values are: [ALL], DATA_ONLY and METADATA_ONLY.

DATA_OPTIONS
Data layer option flags.
Valid keyword values are: XML_CLOBS.

DIRECTORY
Directory object to be used for dump and log files.

DUMPFILE
Specify list of destination dump file names [expdat.dmp].
For example, DUMPFILE=scott1.dmp, scott2.dmp, dmpdir:scott3.dmp.

ENCRYPTION
Encrypt part or all of a dump file.
Valid keyword values are: ALL, DATA_ONLY, ENCRYPTED_COLUMNS_ONLY, METADATA_ONLY and NONE.

ENCRYPTION_ALGORITHM
Specify how encryption should be done.
Valid keyword values are: [AES128], AES192 and AES256.

ENCRYPTION_MODE
Method of generating encryption key.
Valid keyword values are: DUAL, PASSWORD and [TRANSPARENT].

ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD
Password key for creating encrypted data within a dump file.

ESTIMATE
Calculate job estimates.
Valid keyword values are: [BLOCKS] and STATISTICS.

ESTIMATE_ONLY
Calculate job estimates without performing the export.

EXCLUDE
Exclude specific object types.
For example, EXCLUDE=SCHEMA:"='HR'".

FILESIZE
Specify the size of each dump file in units of bytes.

FLASHBACK_SCN
SCN used to reset session snapshot.

FLASHBACK_TIME
Time used to find the closest corresponding SCN value.

FULL
Export entire database [N].

HELP
Display Help messages [N].

INCLUDE
Include specific object types.
For example, INCLUDE=TABLE_DATA.

JOB_NAME
Name of export job to create.

LOGFILE
Specify log file name [export.log].

NETWORK_LINK
Name of remote database link to the source system.

NOLOGFILE
Do not write log file [N].

PARALLEL
Change the number of active workers for current job.

PARFILE
Specify parameter file name.

QUERY
Predicate clause used to export a subset of a table.
For example, QUERY=employees:"WHERE department_id > 10".

REMAP_DATA
Specify a data conversion function.
For example, REMAP_DATA=EMP.EMPNO:REMAPPKG.EMPNO.

REUSE_DUMPFILES
Overwrite destination dump file if it exists [N].

SAMPLE
Percentage of data to be exported. 

SCHEMAS
List of schemas to export [login schema].

SOURCE_EDITION
Edition to be used for extracting metadata.

STATUS
Frequency (secs) job status is to be monitored where
the default [0] will show new status when available.

TABLES
Identifies a list of tables to export.
For example, TABLES=HR.EMPLOYEES,SH.SALES:SALES_1995.

TABLESPACES
Identifies a list of tablespaces to export.

TRANSPORTABLE
Specify whether transportable method can be used.
Valid keyword values are: ALWAYS and [NEVER].

TRANSPORT_FULL_CHECK
Verify storage segments of all tables [N].

TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES
List of tablespaces from which metadata will be unloaded.

VERSION
Version of objects to export.
Valid keyword values are: [COMPATIBLE], LATEST or any valid database version.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The following commands are valid while in interactive mode.
Note: abbreviations are allowed.

ADD_FILE
Add dumpfile to dumpfile set.

CONTINUE_CLIENT
Return to logging mode. Job will be restarted if idle.

EXIT_CLIENT
Quit client session and leave job running.

FILESIZE
Default filesize (bytes) for subsequent ADD_FILE commands.

HELP
Summarize interactive commands.

KILL_JOB
Detach and delete job.

PARALLEL
Change the number of active workers for current job.

REUSE_DUMPFILES
Overwrite destination dump file if it exists [N]. 

START_JOB
Start or resume current job.
Valid keyword values are: SKIP_CURRENT.

STATUS
Frequency (secs) job status is to be monitored where
the default [0] will show new status when available.

STOP_JOB
Orderly shutdown of job execution and exits the client.
Valid keyword values are: IMMEDIATE.

Table Exports The tables parameter is used to specify the tables are exported

expdp scott/tiger directory=ram tables=EMP,DEPT dumpfile=EMP_DEPT logfile=EMP_DEPT.log

Export: Release 11.2.0.1.0 - Production on Sat Mar 19 12:45:51 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 - Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
Starting "SCOTT"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01":  scott/******** directory=ram tables=EMP,DEPT dumpfile=EMP_DEPT logfile=EMP_DEPT.log 
Estimate in progress using BLOCKS method...
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE_DATA
Total estimation using BLOCKS method: 128 KB
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/INDEX
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/CONSTRAINT
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/REF_CONSTRAINT
. . exported "SCOTT"."DEPT"                              5.937 KB       4 rows
. . exported "SCOTT"."EMP"                               8.570 KB      14 rows
Master table "SCOTT"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01" successfully loaded/unloaded
******************************************************************************
Dump file set for SCOTT.SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01 is:
  /u02/backup/datapump/EMP_DEPT.dmp
Job "SCOTT"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01" successfully completed at 12:46:27

 Database Exports the full parameters indicates to export full database

[oracle@goldengatesource ~]$ expdp scott/tiger directory=ram full=y  dumpfile=full_dp  logfile=Full_DP.log

 Schemas Exports The schemas parameter is used to export particular schemas

[oracle@goldengatesource ~]$ expdp system/oracle schemas=SCOTT dumpfile=scott.dmp logfile=scott.log

 Query Export  we can export the table based on query  where condition

[oracle@goldengatesource ~]$ expdp scott/tiger directory=ram tables=emp query=emp:"Where deptno>20" dumpfile=query.dmp logfile=query.log

 Content Exports in Table  we can export the table content wise content=all includes indexes ,constraint and data

[oracle@goldengatesource ~]$ expdp scott/tiger directory=ram tables=emp content= all dumpfile=Cont_all.dmp logfile=Cont_all.log

content=data_0nly

expdp scott/tiger directory=ram tables=emp content= data_only dumpfile=Cont_data.dmp logfile=Cont_data.log

Export: Release 11.2.0.1.0 - Production on Sat Mar 19 14:47:35 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 - Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
Starting "SCOTT"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01":  scott/******** directory=ram tables=emp content= dumpfile=Cont_data.dmp logfile=Cont_data.log 
Estimate in progress using BLOCKS method...
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE_DATA
Total estimation using BLOCKS method: 64 KB
. . exported "SCOTT"."EMP"                               8.570 KB      14 rows
Master table "SCOTT"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01" successfully loaded/unloaded
******************************************************************************
Dump file set for SCOTT.SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01 is:
  /u02/backup/datapump/Cont_data.dmp
Job "SCOTT"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01" successfully completed at 14:47:39

  content=metadata_only

[oracle@goldengatesource ~]$ expdp scott/tiger directory=ram tables=emp content= metadata_only dumpfile=Cont_metadata.dmp logfile=Cont_data.log

Export: Release 11.2.0.1.0 - Production on Sat Mar 19 14:56:18 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 - Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
Starting "SCOTT"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01":  scott/******** directory=ram tables=emp content= dumpfile=Cont_metadata.dmp logfile=Cont_data.log 
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/INDEX
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/CONSTRAINT
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/REF_CONSTRAINT
Master table "SCOTT"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01" successfully loaded/unloaded
******************************************************************************
Dump file set for SCOTT.SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01 is:
  /u02/backup/datapump/Cont_metadata.dmp
Job "SCOTT"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01" successfully completed at 14:56:26

 Parfile Export Using this parameter we can execute do export  through the text  file s-1: create txt file and give a name s-2: write the contents in that "Test.tzt" text file directory=ram   tables=emp query=emp  dumpfile=query.dmp logfile=query.log

s-3: exp  scott/tiger parfile=test.txt

  Compress Export Using This parameter we ll reduce file size of export

[oracle@goldengatesource ~]$ expdp system/oracle compress=y schemas=scott directory=ram dumpfile=sh_sco.dmp logfile=sh_sco.log

 Estimate Export This parameter ll calculate export file size i)estimate=blocks

[oracle@goldengatesource ~]$ expdp scott/tiger tables=emp directory=ram dumpfile=sch1.dmp estimate=blocks logfile=sch1.log

Export: Release 11.2.0.1.0 - Production on Sun Mar 20 11:48:27 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 - Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
Starting "SCOTT"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01":  scott/******** tables=emp directory=ram dumpfile=sch1.dmp estimate=blocks logfile=sch1.log 
Estimate in progress using BLOCKS method...
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE_DATA
.  estimated "SCOTT"."EMP"                                  64 KB
Total estimation using BLOCKS method: 64 KB

ii)estimate=statistics

[oracle@goldengatesource ~]$ expdp scott/tiger tables=emp directory=ram dumpfile=sch2.dmp estimate=statistics logfile=sch2.log

Export: Release 11.2.0.1.0 - Production on Sun Mar 20 11:49:00 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 - Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
Starting "SCOTT"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01":  scott/******** tables=emp directory=ram dumpfile=sch2.dmp estimate=statistics logfile=sch2.log 
Estimate in progress using STATISTICS method...
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE_DATA
.  estimated "SCOTT"."EMP"                               8.203 KB
Total estimation using STATISTICS method: 8.203 KB

 Version Export  In your case, both the export (expdp) and import (impdp) are with Data Pump and you can use the version [parameter to export from a later release of Oracle an import that dump file into an earlier release of Oracle. You can import your 11g expdp dump file into Oracle 10g if you make sure you use "VERSION=10.2" parameter during export

expdp hr/hr TABLES=hr.employees2 VERSION=10.2 DIRECTORY=ram DUMPFILE=emp2.dmp LOGFILE=emp2.log

to import lower version

impdp scott/tiger TABLES=emp DIRECTORY=ram DUMPFILE=emp2.dmp LOGFILE=emp2_imp.log

 Job Name Exports using this parameter we ll give the job

[oracle@goldengatesource ~]$ expdp system/oracle tables=dept job_name=dept directory=ram dumpfile=deptr.dmp logfile=deptr.log

Datapump Features   start the export then press ctrl+c it ll show export  icon Status

Export> status

Job: SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01
  Operation: EXPORT                         
  Mode: TABLE                          
  State: EXECUTING                      
  Bytes Processed: 0
  Current Parallelism: 1
  Job Error Count: 0
  Dump File: /u02/backup/datapump/dept.dmp
    bytes written: 4,096
  
Worker 1 Status:
  Process Name: DW00
  State: EXECUTING                      
  Object Schema: SCOTT
  Object Name: PK_DEPT
  Object Type: TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/CONSTRAINT
  Completed Objects: 1
  Total Objects: 1
  Worker Parallelism: 1

Stop_job To stop our export job
Export> stop_job
Are you sure you wish to stop this job ([yes]/no): yes

restart the stopped job

[oracle@goldengatesource ~]$ expdp system/oracle attach=dept

Export: Release 11.2.0.1.0 - Production on Sun Mar 20 14:03:51 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 - Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

Job: DEPT
  Owner: SYSTEM                         
  Operation: EXPORT                         
  Creator Privs: TRUE                           
  GUID: 2E7689B0AC97B09EE050007F01002653
  Start Time: Sunday, 20 March, 2016 14:03:54
  Mode: TABLE                          
  Instance: CA
  Max Parallelism: 1
  EXPORT Job Parameters:
  Parameter Name      Parameter Value:
     CLIENT_COMMAND        system/******** tables=dept job_name=dept directory=ram dumpfile=deptr.dmp logfile=deptr.log 
  State: IDLING                         
  Bytes Processed: 0
  Current Parallelism: 1
  Job Error Count: 0
  Dump File: /u02/backup/datapump/deptr.dmp
    bytes written: 8,192
  
Worker 1 Status:
  Process Name: DW00
  State: UNDEFINED                      

Export> status

Job: DEPT
  Operation: EXPORT                         
  Mode: TABLE                          
  State: IDLING                         
  Bytes Processed: 0
  Current Parallelism: 1
  Job Error Count: 0
  Dump File: /u02/backup/datapump/deptr.dmp
    bytes written: 8,192
  
Worker 1 Status:
  Process Name: DW00
  State: UNDEFINED

Note : (Re)start the job with START_JOB, use ‘=SKIP_CURRENT‘ if you want to skip the current job either you want to continue stopped job  CONTINUE_CLIENT (Job will be restarted if idle)